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How alternator works?
Vehicle Mounted Generators Movable Power Station

The working principle of the overall alternator:

When the external circuit energizes the field winding by the brush, a magnetic field is generated to cause the claw pole to be magnetized to the N pole and the S pole. When the rotor rotates, the magnetic flux alternately changes in the stator winding. According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, an alternating induced electromotive force is generated in the three-phase winding of the stator. This is the principle of power generation of an alternator.

The synchronous generator rotor, which is driven by the prime mover (ie, the engine), is rotated at a speed of n (rpm), and the three-phase stator winding senses the alternating potential. If the stator winding is connected to the electric load, the motor has AC power output, and the AC power is converted into DC power from the output terminal through the rectifier bridge inside the generator.

The alternator is divided into two parts: a stator winding and a rotor winding. The three-phase stator windings are distributed on the housing at an electrical angle of 120 degrees from each other, and the rotor winding is composed of two pole claws. When the rotor winding is turned on, it is excited, and the two pole claws form an N pole and an S pole. The magnetic lines of force start from the N pole and enter the stator core through the air gap and return to the adjacent S pole. Once the rotor rotates, the rotor winding cuts the magnetic lines of force, producing a sinusoidal electromotive force with a difference of 120 degrees of electrical power in the stator windings, that is, three-phase alternating current, and then a rectifying element composed of diodes becomes a direct current output.

When the switch is closed, the current is first supplied by the battery. The circuit is:

Battery positive → charging indicator → regulator contact → excitation winding → grounding → battery negative. At this time, the charging indicator lights up because there is current flowing.

However, after the engine is started, as the generator speed increases, the terminal voltage of the generator also increases. When the output voltage of the generator is equal to the battery voltage, the potentials of the "B" end and the "D" end of the generator are equal. At this time, the charging indicator light is extinguished due to the zero potential difference between the two ends. Indicates that the generator is working properly and the excitation current is supplied by the generator itself. The three-phase AC electromotive force generated by the three-phase winding in the generator is rectified by the diode, and the DC power is output, the power is supplied to the load, and the battery is charged.


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